Question of the Month: Clean Cities uses a lot of acronyms. What are the most important ones to understand?
Have you ever been on the DOE’s AFDC to learn about EVSE for EVs or PHEVs to meet EPAct requirements? Let’s take a step back. Perhaps you feel like you need a translator just to understand the basics of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. If this sounds familiar, get in the know with our list of the top Clean Cities acronyms, broken down into 10 categories:
Federal Agencies and National Laboratories
DOE: U.S. Department of Energy: The federal agency with the mission to ensure America’s security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions. Clean Cities is part of that overall mission. DOE includes:
EIA: Energy Information Administration: Collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy.
DOE National Laboratories: Organizations affiliated with DOE, focused on delivering solutions to energy challenges and transforming the way our nation uses energy. There are more than a dozen DOE national laboratories. The labs that contribute to the work of Clean Cities include:
- ANL: Argonne National Laboratory
- INL: Idaho National Laboratory
- NREL: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
- PNNL: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
DOT: U.S. Department of Transportation: A federal agency with the mission to ensure a fast, safe, efficient, accessible, and convenient transportation system that meets our national interests and enhances the quality of life of the American people, today and into the future. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is part of DOT.
EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: A federal agency with the mission to protect human health and the environment.
Alternative Fuels Data Center: A web-based resource that provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.
GVWR: Gross vehicle weight rating: A metric that includes total vehicle weight plus fluids, passengers, and cargo. GVWR is used to define vehicle classes.
VMT: Vehicle miles traveled: VMT is the number of miles traveled by a vehicle or set of vehicles over a certain time period.
MPG: Miles per gallon: The standard for tracking a vehicle’s fuel economy.
MPGe: Miles per gallon of gasoline-equivalent: For vehicles that do not use liquid fuels, a measure of fuel economy that allows for a reasonable comparison between vehicles using different fuels. MPGe represents the number of miles the vehicle can go using a quantity of fuel with the same energy content as a gallon of gasoline.
GGE: Gasoline gallon equivalent: The amount of fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline.
DGE: Diesel gallon equivalent: The amount of fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of diesel.
Various agencies and organizations classify vehicles differently. Below are FHWA classifications:
- LDV: Light-duty vehicle: A vehicle under 10,000 pounds (lbs.; Class 1-2).
- MDV: Medium-duty vehicle: A vehicle between 10,000 and 26,000 lbs. (Class 3-6).
- HDV: Heavy-duty vehicle: A vehicle over 26,000 lbs. (Class 7-8).
Vehicle Emissions and Pollutants
GHG: Greenhouse gas: A global pollutant, meaning it has climate and other impacts globally, no matter where it is emitted. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is by far the most abundant GHG produced by the transportation sector.
- CO: Carbon monoxide: A colorless, odorless gas emitted from combustion processes. In the United States, 56% of CO (up to 95% in cities) is emitted by on-road vehicles.
- NOx: Oxides of nitrogen: A group of highly reactive gasses emitted from combustion processes that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Approximately 55% of man-made NOx emissions come from motor vehicles.
- SOx: Oxides of sulfur: A group of highly reactive gasses emitted from combustion processes. SOx is a concern for life cycle analysis of electric vehicle emissions, but not for conventional or other alternative fuel vehicles, because electricity generation is the largest source of SOx.
- PM: Particulate matter: A complex mixture of acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles, emitted directly from vehicles (especially diesel) and formed through the atmospheric reactions of NOx and SOx.
- VOC: Volatile organic compound: Organic compounds that become a gas at room temperature. VOCs are the leading cause of ground-level ozone, also known as smog.
Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles
AFV: Alternative fuel vehicle: Any dedicated, flexible fuel, bi-fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at least one alternative fuel.
- B5: 5% biodiesel, 95% petroleum diesel: Considered diesel fuel and approved for safe operation in any compression-ignition engine designed to operate on petroleum diesel.
- B20: 20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel: The most common biodiesel blend in the United States.
- B100: 100% biodiesel: Also referred to as pure biodiesel.
- HEV: Hybrid electric vehicle: Powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. The battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the ICE.
- PEV: Plug-in electric vehicle: Derives all or part of their power from electricity supplied by the electric grid. PEVs include:
- PHEV: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: An HEV that can be plugged into an electric power source to charge the battery.
- EV: All-electric vehicle: Uses a battery to store the electric energy that powers the motor. Batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source.
- EVSE: Electric vehicle supply equipment: Deliver electrical energy from an electricity source to charge a PEV’s batteries.
- E85: A high-level ethanol-gasoline blend containing 51%-83% ethanol, depending on geography and season.
- FFV: Flexible fuel vehicle: A vehicle with an ICE capable of operating on gasoline, E85, or a mixture of the two.
- FCEV: Fuel cell electric vehicle: A vehicle that uses electricity to power a motor, but produces its primary electricity using a fuel cell powered by hydrogen.
- CNG: Compressed natural gas
- LNG: Liquefied natural gas
- RNG: Renewable natural gas: Also known as biomethane, a fuel produced from organic materials (e.g., waste from landfills, livestock). It can be compressed or liquefied, and is pipeline-quality gas that is compatible with conventional natural gas in vehicles.
- NGV: Natural gas vehicle: A dedicated, bi-fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle capable of running on CNG or LNG.
- LPG: Liquefied petroleum gas: A term used interchangeably with propane.
Clean Cities Tools and Resources
GREET: Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation: An ANL model that evaluates the energy and emission impacts of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, the fuel cycle from wells-to-wheels, and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal.
AFLEET: Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation: An ANL spreadsheet tool that estimates petroleum use, GHG and air pollutant emissions, and cost of ownership of AFVs and conventional vehicles, using simple spreadsheet inputs.
PREP: Petroleum Reduction Planning: An online tool that helps fleets create a comprehensive plan to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions.
VICE: Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation: An NREL spreadsheet model for fleet managers to assess the financial soundness of converting their fleets to run on CNG.
CAFE: Corporate Average Fuel Economy: DOT standards to improve the fuel efficiency and emissions of new on-road motor vehicles.
CMAQ: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement: A DOT program that provides funding for projects and programs to reduce transportation-related emissions.
RFS: Renewable Fuel Standard: An EPA program that requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum volume of renewable fuels to reduce GHG emissions.
RINs: Renewable Identification Numbers: Credits used for compliance with the RFS.
Key Federal Legislation
CAA: Clean Air Act of 1970: Defines EPA’s responsibilities for protecting and improving air quality. CAA authorizes the development of comprehensive federal and state regulations to limit both stationary and mobile emissions sources.
EPAct: Energy Policy Act: EPAct 1992 encourages the use of alternative fuels through both regulatory and voluntary activities that DOE carries out. It was amended several times, including via EPAct 2005.
EISA: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Aims to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce United States dependence on petroleum. EISA includes provisions for the RFS and CAFE standards.
ARRA: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) of 2009: Appropriates investments in energy independence and renewable energy technologies, including Clean Cities and other grant programs.
The Southeast Alternative Fuel Demonstration Initiative (SADI) grant is a US Department of Energy project focused on the increased adoption of alternative fuels in the Southeast region of the United States. Project partners for this grant include Alliance Autogas, Enterprise, ICOM, Palmetto Gas, Penske and others.
Clean Cities Coalitions throughout South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee will work with technology partners to provide opportunities for fleets to demonstrate a wide range of alternative fuel vehicles. More information can be found on the SADI website. If you're interested in testing out any of the following alternative fuel vehicles, please contact Jessica Hill at jhill [at] centralina [dot] org or 704.348.2731
Question of the Month: What types of incentives and laws did state legislators and others enact in 2015?
State legislators, as well as governors and utilities, were busy in 2015 introducing and enacting new incentives, laws, and regulations related to alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and other petroleum reduction strategies. Programs related to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and natural gas vehicles (NGVs), along with the associated fueling infrastructure, were most common at the state level.
The most common types of incentives established in 2015 were grants and rebates. States leading the way in these areas include Delaware, most notably for its Clean Trasnportation Program rebates for vehicles and infrastructure. On the other hand, the number of tax incentives introduced at the state level decreased. In fact, Georgia repealed its successful tax incentive program. Aside from political and budgetary drivers, the decrease in new tax incentives may be the result of a call from industry to enact programs that will allow fleets and consumers to see their savings more immediately (e.g., rebates, vouchers). This would take the place of waiting until tax season when the financial benefit may get lost in other expenses and returns from the previous year.
Utilities also continue to innovate and establish incentives that go beyond the typical residential charging infrastructure rebate and electricity rate discount programs. For example, Alabama Power offers and incentive to dealerships for each new PEV sale or lease within its service territory. Public Service Electric & Gas in New Jersey provides free electric vehicle supply equipment to qualified companies in its service territory for the purpose of workplace charging.
Laws and Regulations
Registration and licensing was the most common law and regulation topic, in part due to several states introducing fees for PEV registration to account for lost revenue from fuel taxes. Several states also continued to build on a movement that begain in 2014 and changes that took place at the federal level by enacting legislation to tax natural gas and other fuels on an energy (i.e., gasoline-gallon or diesel-gallon) equivalent basis. States also continued to set targets and requirements for their own fleets many of which go above and beyond federal requirements for alternative fuel vehicle acquisition. For example, Colorado Executive Order 2015-013 established fleet purchase and pricing requirements that prioritize NGVs, annual fuel use reduction targets on a vehicle-specific basis, goals for inter-agency coordination on petroleum reduction strategies, and commitments to workplace charging.
For the most up-to-date information on incentives, laws, and regulations, the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) provides a searchable database of state and federal incentives, laws, and regulations related to alternative fuels and vehicles, air quality, vehicle efficiency, and other transportation-related topics. You can find information relevant to your state, and all others at http://www.afdc.energy.gov/laws.
Winter is the season of snow. cold, and oddly enough, auto shows. Reporters and consumers alike flock to these showcases of the latest and greatest in vehicles to find out what will be on the road this year and in the future. While low gas prices are driving many people to larger, less fuel-efficient vehicles, there are still a number of alternative fuel and advanced technology ones on display. The hottest vehicles are a mix of those that are available at dealerships now and not for a few more months.
For plug-in electric vehicles, the 2016 Chevrolet Volt nabbed the Green Car of the Year honor at the L.A. Auto Show, with its expanded all-electric range, five passenger capacity, lower price and new ability to use non-premium gasoline. While the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle was versatile before, these new features make more affordable and convenient for a wider range of people. It even sports technology developed as a result of Energy Department investments, with an inverter and battery improved through Energy Department-sponsored research. Similarly, the 2016 all-electric Nissan Leaf offers the option to upgrade to a larger battery pack with a 107 mile range. Another recently announced plug-in electric vehicle is the Hyundai Sonata plug-in hybrid, which has a 27 mile all-electric range and is available in "select markets." Later this year, the Cehvrolet Bolt could be a major game changer with its 200 mile all-electric range, crossover style, and relatively low price. In addition, Audi, Hyundai, Chevrolet, and BMW have announced new plug-in electric models in the coming years.
On the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle side, the 2016 Toyotta Mirai and Hyundai Tucson are available at select dealers in California, with the Mirai for sale and the Tucson for lease. The Tucson is one of the few advanced technology SUVs on the market and was featured in a video taken at the Department of Energy. In addition to these, Honda is debuting the Clarity Fuel Cell in the U.S. later this year.
Although generally not highlighted at the consumer auto shows, there are also increasing options available in propane and natural gas. Chevrolet now has a bi-fuel CNG Impala that can have more flexibility for fleets than a dedicated vehicle may. In addition, an increasing number of original engine manufacturers are making propane and natural gas prep packages available.
On Friday, December 18th, President Obama signed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016 (H.R. 2029). Division Q, the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act (PATH Act), retroactively extends many tax credits.
There are several PATH Act provisions with implications for Clean Cities portfolio items:
• Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit. Section 182 extends the tax credit for alternative fuel infrastructure through December 31, 2016. Fueling equipment for natural gas, propane, liquefied hydrogen, electricity, E85, and biodiesel are eligible for a tax credit of 30%, up to $30,000. Residential fueling equipment may receive a tax credit up to $1,000.
• Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Credit. Section 192 extends the $0.50 per gallon tax credit for alternative fuels, including liquefied hydrogen, through December 31, 2016.
• Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit. Section 192 also extends the $0.50 per gallon tax credit for alternative fuel used to produce a mixture containing at least 0.1% gasoline, diesel, or kerosene through December 31, 2016. Alternative fuel blenders must be registered with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
• Qualified Two-wheeled Plug-In Electric Drive Motor Vehicle Tax Credit. Section 183 extends the two-wheeled plug-in electric drive motor vehicle tax credit through December 31, 2017. Qualified vehicles are eligible of a tax credit for 10% of the cost of the vehicle, up to $2,500.
• Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle Tax Credit. Section 193 extends the $4,000 tax credit for the purchase of qualified light-duty fuel cell vehicles through December 31, 2016.
• Biodiesel Income Tax Credit. Section 185 extends the biodiesel income tax credit through December 31, 2016. A taxpayer that delivers unblended biodiesel (B100) into the tank of a vehicle may be eligible for a $1.00 per gallon of biodiesel, agri-biodiesel, or renewable diesel tax credit.
• Biodiesel Mixture Excise Tax Credit. Section 185 also extends the $0.50 per gallon tax credit for biodiesel, agri-biodiesel, or renewable diesel used to produce a mixture containing at least 0.1% gasoline, diesel, or kerosene through December 31, 2016. Alternative fuel blenders must be registered with the IRS.
• Second Generation Biofuel Production Property Depreciation Allowance. Section 189 extends the 50% special depreciation allowance for second generation biofuel production plants through January 1, 2017.
• Second Generation Producer Tax Credit. Section 184 extends the tax credit for second generation biofuel producers through December 31, 2016. Second generation biofuel producers registered with the IRS may be eligible for a $1.01 per gallon of biodiesel tax credit.
The changes outlined above are effective immediately. To view the full text of the PATH Act, visit https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-114hr2029enr/pdf/BILLS-114hr2029enr.pdf. See the Alternative Fuels Data Center Federal Laws and Incentives page for descriptions of each incentive.
This week's Clean Cities success story takes us to Asheville, North Carolina, to the Biltmore, America's largest home. The Biltmore uses biodiesel produced from the 50 acres of canola on the estate and from the restaurant waste cooking oil processed on site. Propane is also part of the Biltmore's sustainability portfolio. With the assistance of the Land of Sky Clean Vehicles Coalition, the Biltmore uses eight propane-powered shuttle buses to transport guests around the property.
Produced by Maryland Public Television's MotorWeek program, this episode (#3516) will air on PBS stations nationwide starting Dec. 26, 2015. For show times in your area, check the MotorWeek and Discovery Channel websites. MotorWeek is also available in high definition on Velocity by Discovery.
The North Carolina Department of Transportation (N.C. DOT) is continuing to support efforts led by the N.C. Clean Energy Technology Center (NCCETC) at North Carolina State University to reduce transportation related emissions through a two-year $4,494,500 award for the Clean Fuel Advanced Technology (CFAT) project. This marks the fourth phase of the CFAT initiative, which began in 2006.
The CFAT project focuses on improving air quality in the 24 North Carolina counties that are in non-attainment or maintenance status with regards to National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The project ccenters around three primary activities: education and outreach, emission reduction sub-awards, and recognition of exemplary efforts among fleets and organizations reducing their transportation-related emissions. The 2016-17 phase includes the following:
- Expansion of a public education campaign to increase awareness of cleaner transportation options such as walking, biking, transit and alternative fuels. The campaign includes statewide television, radio, and billboard advertising directing users to the consumer-oriented website FuelWhatMatters.org.
- Collaboration and information exchange at a regional and statewide level, including the N.C. Clean Transportation Coordinating Committee, the N.C. Smart Fleet initiative, and a track at the 2016 State Energy Conference in Raleigh, North Carolina that is dedicated to topics relevant to a wide range of transportation stakeholders.
- Development of a professional Smart Fleet management training program that will provide tools and information to increase fleet efficiency through the use of low carbon fuels, technologies, practices and policies.
- Distribution of $3 million for transportation technology-related emission reduction projects. These funds will be allocated through a minimum of two competitive call for project processes.
The beginning of this new CFAT phase coincides with the announcementof a request for proposal period for $1.5 million in funding available to governments, businesses, and/or non-profit applicants for transportation technology emission reduction projects. Eligible projects include biodiesel, E85 ethanol, electric, hybrid electric, natural gas, and propane vehicles and refueling/recharging equipment. Vehicle telematics, diesel retrofits, and idle reduction technologies are also eligible for CFAT grant funding.
Funding assistance is allocated in the form of a reimbursement, which can cover up to 80 percent of the project cost. In order to be eligible, a project must reduce transportation-related emissions within the 24 eligible counties with the exception of natural gas refueling equipment and electric vehicle recharging infrastructure which, in accordance with federal guidelines, can be located anywhere within the state. For education and outreach regarding alternative fuel and fuel conservation technologies and policies, the N.C. Clean Energy Technology Center has partnered with Triangle J, Centralina, Upper Coastal Plain and Kerr-Tar Councils of Governments, and the Piedmont Triad Regional Council.
Guidelines and applications available by clicking on Incentives & Funding at: www.cleantransportation.org
- What words or images from this slide catch you attention?
- What headlines have you been reading or seen in the news this week or month related to crude oil prices?
- What do you think of when I say the words "falling oil prices?"
- What concerns you?
- What is the importance of the price of oil? Why should we care about falling oil prices?
- What implications does this have for the national Clean Cities program?
- What opportunities could exist?
- What does this mean for the next year? Or next 5 years?
- What kind of decisions do we need to make as a Clean Cities Coalition?
Items to Consider:
- OEM's and suppliers costs are down leading to cost to do new fuels/technology are more feasible
- Alternative fuels now available almost everywhere
- Maintenance protocols are improving for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) leading to reduced costs
- Reliability of AFVs improving leading to proven performance (not an unknown)
- Communicating value to potential users we need to tap into knowledge gained by early adopters (i.e. learning curves, best practices)
- Local governments need to augment budget process and mechanisms to better favor innovation shifts to new technology (i.e. allowing departments to keep cost savings)
- Education and outreach around variety of petroleum reduction programs and technologies (i.e. anti-idling, telematics)
- Myth busting about various fuels, technolgy and vehicles: making sure dealers are better prepared/knowledgeable on AFVs, providing clarity on source of electricity for EVs (air quality impacts)
Diversification as a strategy
- Focus on pros of alternative technologies
- Focus on long-term thinking vs. short term (where will we be in 2020?)
- Different duty cycles will be met by variety of fuels and vehicles
Asheville Outlets announced the installation of a Tesla Motors Superchager station! This Tesla Supercharger station, located at 800 Brevard Road, has eight charging bays suitable for the Tesla Model S and X. They are capable of replenishing approximately 170 miles of range in 20 minutes and charging to full capacity in 40 minutes!
Eastern Carolina Council is working on a Plug-In Electric vehicle corridor plan. The aim is to help counties and municipalities along US-70 create a range anxiety-free route for folks traveling east. This will be done through enabling language in local codes, marketing of the corridor, and potentail charging site locations.